Born in Bremen, Germany, Herzog studied at the Dusseldorf Academy with Johann Wilhelm Schirmer and then with renowned Norwegian landscape painter Hans Gude. He then became Gude's apprentice, painting numerous locations in Western Europe and Norway known for their beauty and grandeur.
Herzog soon attracted the attention of the European and Russian nobility who became his patrons. Both Queen Victoria and Czar Alexander the second were among his clients. Modest and happy with his artistic accomplishments, Herzog entered a competition only once, in 1863 at the Paris salon where he placed well.
In the 1860's Herzog emigrated to America choosing Philadelphia as his home. Painting throughout the United States and Mexico, his paintings became noted for their realistic style and pleasant moods, creating works that were both soft and appealing. Today, the prolific output of paintings herzog created during his long life are in many of the finest art collections world-wide.